How To Use The Object-Oriented Programming Approach in Python

Python

OOP or object-oriented programming is a process of bundling related behaviours and properties while structuring a program into individual objects. Python is a multi-paradigm programming language. It can support multiple programming approaches. And creating objects is quite a popular approach to solve programming problems. Whether you aspire to be a machine learning engineer or a software developer, you must be familiar with object-oriented programming in Python.

What Is An Object In Python?

An object consists of two characteristics:

  • Attributes– such as name, address and age.
  • Behaviour– such as walking, running and breathing.

Let’s say a parrot is an object. So, the attributes would be the name, age and colour of the parrot. The behavioural characteristics would be activities such as dancing and singing.

What is a Class in Python?

The class is like a blueprint for the object. If the object is a parrot, the class would have a rough sketch of the parrot and labels. The sketch consists of all the details about the animal, such as its name, size, colour, weight, etc. The class of parrot in Python programming assignment help looks something like this:

class Parrot:

pass

In this example, a class defines an empty class as ‘Parrot’. You can construct instances from a class. Instances are specific objects generated from a specific class.

Now the object of the parrot class looks something like this:

obj = Parrot()

obj is an object of the parrot class.

How to Create an Object and Class in Python?

Let’s say you want to create a class with the name ‘Dog’. So, the next step is to define the attributes, which are nothing but characteristics of an object. The other steps for creating an object and class in Python are:

  • Define the attributes inside the –init- method of the class.
  • Create instances of the Dog class.
  • Use references in the form of brown and woo to the new objects.
  • Access the class attributes with _class_.species. Remember, the class attributes are the same for all instances of a class.

Example:

class Dog:

# class attribute

Species = “animal”

# instance attribute

Def _init_(self, name, age):

self.name = name

self.age = age

# instantiate the Dog class

brown = Dog(“Brown”, 10)

woo = Dog(“Woo”, 15)

# access the class attributes

print(“Brown is a {}”.format(brown._class_.species))

print(“Woo is also a {}”.format(woo._class_.species))

# access the instant attributes

print(“{} is {} years old”.format( brown.name, brown.age))

print(“{} is {} years old”.format( woo.name, woo.age))

Predicted output

Brown is an animal.

Woo is also an animal.

Brown is 10 years old.

Woo is 15 years old.

How to Create Methods in Python?

Let’s say you want to define two methods, such as talks() and dance(). These are instance methods since they define the instance object- brown.

Example:

class Dog:

# instance attributes

def _init_(self, name, age);

self.name = name

self.age = age

# instance method

def talk(self, bark):

return “{} talks {}” .format(self.name, bark)

def dance(self):

return “{}is now dancing” .format(self.name)

# instantiate the object

brown = Dog (“Brown”, 10)

# call our instance methods

print(brown.sing(“’Happy’”))

print(brown.dance())

Predicted output:

Brown talks ‘Happy’

Brown is now dancing

How To Use Inheritance In Python’s Object-Oriented Programming?

The most important feature in an OOPS framework is Inheritance. It is the ability of a class to obtain or inherit attributes or methods of another class. You can also consider this a process of creating a new class using details of an existing class and without altering it. The existing class is the parent class or the base class.

Example:

# parent class

class Animal:

def _init_(self):

print(“Animal is ready”)

def whoisThis(self):

print(“Animal”)

def swim(self):

print(“Swim faster”)

# child class

Class Leopard(Animal):

def _init_(self):

# call super () function

super()._init_()

print(“Leopard is ready”)

def whoisThis(self):

print(“Run Faster”)

puma = Leopard()

puma .whoisThis()

puma .swim()

puma .run()

Predicted Output:

Animal is ready

Leopard is ready

Leopard

Swim faster

Run faster

As you can see, I created two classes, such as Animal (parent class) and Leopard (child class). According to the definitions of Inheritance, the child class inherits the primary functions of the parent class.

The child class, however, alters the parent class’s behaviour using the whoisThis() method. You can also extend the functions of the main class using a new run() method.

I have also used the super() function within the _init_() method. This step can help you run the _init_() method inside the child class.

How To Use Data Encapsulation In Python?

Encapsulation is the process of making attributes inaccessible to clients. The attributes can only be accessed using specific methods. The process of hiding certain attributes is also known as information hiding. The inaccessible attributes are private attributes. Remember, private attributes begin with two single or double underscores.

Example:

class iPhone:

def _init_(self):

self._maxprice = 900

def sell(self):

print(“Selling Price: {}”. Format(self._maxprice))

def setMaxPrice(self, price):

self._maxprice = price

= Computer()

sell()

change the price

_maxprice = 1000

sell()

 using setter function

setMaxPrice(1000)

sell()

Predicted output:

Selling Price: 900

Selling Price: 900

Selling Price: 1000

As stated in the example above, the _init_() method can help you save the maximum selling price of the Computer class. You cannot modify the price since _maxprice is a private attribute. However, you can change the value by using a setter function- setMaxPrice().

How To Use Polymorphism In Python?

This is the ability to use a common interface for different types of data. Let’s say you need to opt for online physics programming assignment help. So, there are multiple academic companies that claim to provide you with the help. However, you can connect with them in the same method- calling. This concept is polymorphism.

Example

class Dog:

def fly(self):

print(“Dog can’t fly”)

def swim(self):

print(“Dog can swim”)

class Leopard:

def fly(self):

print(“Leopard can’t fly”)

def swim(self):

print(“Leopard can swim”)

# common interface

def flying_test(animal):

animal.fly()

# instantiate objects

blu = Dog()

peggy = Leopard()

# passing the object

flying_test(blu)

flying_test(peggy)

Predicted output:

Dog can’t fly

Leopard can’t fly

In this example, there are two classes- Dog and Leopard. The common method is fly() though their functions are different. The common interface is flying_test() which calls the object’s fly() method.

Wrapping Up,

This is all about the basics of object-oriented programming in Python. Modern programming languages like C#, Java and C++ follow OOP principles, including encapsulation, Inheritance and polymorphism. Now you know even Python can be used to implement these principles. OOP in Python makes the codes easier to understand and write. The class is also sharable, thereby making the code reusable. It will be easier for you to land amazing career opportunities once you get familiar with the OOP in Python. You can also seek Python programming assignment help to get the hang of the basic terms involved in this field.